Custom Gas Token

Table of Contents

Overview

Custom gas token is also known as "custom L2 native asset". It allows for an L1-native ERC20 token to collateralize and act as the gas token on L2. The native asset is used to buy gas which is used to pay for resources on the network and is represented by EVM opcodes such as CALLVALUE (msg.value).

Both the L1 and L2 smart contract systems MUST be able to introspect on the address of the gas paying token to ensure the security of the system. The source of truth for the configuration of the address of the token is in the L1 SystemConfig smart contract.

The terms "custom gas token", "gas paying token", "native asset" and "gas paying asset" can all be used interchangebly. Note, Ether is not a custom gas token, but may be used to pay gas. More on this in ## Configuring the Gas Paying Token.

Constants

ConstantValueDescription
ETHER_TOKEN_ADDRESSaddress(0xEeeeeEeeeEeEeeEeEeEeeEEEeeeeEeeeeeeeEEeE)Represents ether for gas paying asset
DEPOSITOR_ACCOUNTaddress(0xDeaDDEaDDeAdDeAdDEAdDEaddeAddEAdDEAd0001)Account with auth permissions on L1Block contract
GAS_PAYING_TOKEN_SLOTbytes32(uint256(keccak256("opstack.gaspayingtoken")) - 1)Storage slot that contains the address and decimals of the gas paying token
GAS_PAYING_TOKEN_NAME_SLOTbytes32(uint256(keccak256("opstack.gaspayingtokenname")) - 1)Storage slot that contains the ERC20 name() of the gas paying token
GAS_PAYING_TOKEN_SYMBOL_SLOTbytes32(uint256(keccak256("opstack.gaspayingtokensymbol")) - 1)Storage slot that contains the ERC20 symbol() of the gas paying token

Properties of a Gas Paying Token

The gas paying token MUST satisfy the standard ERC20 interface and implementation. It MUST be an L1 contract.

The gas paying token MUST NOT:

  • Have a fee on transfer
  • Have rebasing logic
  • Have call hooks on transfer
  • Have other than 18 decimals
  • Have out of band methods for modifying balance or allowance
  • Have a name() that is more than 32 bytes long
  • Have a symbol() this is more than 32 bytes long
  • Be a double entrypoint token

It MUST be enforced on chain that the token has exactly 18 decimals to guarantee no losses of precision when depositing a token that has a different number of decimals. It MUST be enforced on chain that the token's name and symbol are less than 32 bytes to guarantee they can each fit into a single storage slot.

It MAY be possible to support ERC20 tokens with varying amounts of decimals in the future.

Automated Validation

Ideally it is possible to have automated validation of custom gas paying tokens to know that the token satisfies the above properties. Due to the nature of the EVM, it may not always be possible to do so. ERC-165 isn't always used by ERC20 tokens and isn't guaranteed to tell the truth. USDT does not correctly implement the ERC20 spec. It may be possible to use execution traces to observe the properties of the ERC20 tokens but some degree of social consensus will be required for determining the validity of an ERC20 token.

Configuring the Gas Paying Token

The gas paying token is set within the L1 SystemConfig smart contract. This allows for easy access to the information required to know if an OP Stack chain is configured to use a custom gas paying token. The gas paying token is set during initialization and cannot be modified by the SystemConfig bytecode. Since the SystemConfig is proxied, it is always possible to modify the storage slot that holds the gas paying token address directly during an upgrade. It is assumed that the chain operator will not modify the gas paying token address unless they specifically decide to do so and appropriately handle the consequences of the action.

The gas paying token address is network specific configuration, therefore it MUST be set in storage and not as an immutable. This ensures that the same contract bytecode can be used by multiple OP Stack chains.

If the address in the GAS_PAYING_TOKEN_SLOT slot for SystemConfig is address(0), the system is configured to use ether as the gas paying token, and the getter for the token returns ETHER_TOKEN_ADDRESS. If the address in the GAS_PAYING_TOKEN_SLOT slot for SystemConfig is not address(0), the system is configured to use a custom gas paying token, and the getter returns the address in the slot.

flowchart LR
    subgraph Layer One
        OP[OptimismPortal]
        subgraph SystemConfig
          TA1[Token Address]
        end
        CO[Chain Operator] -->|"initialize()"| SystemConfig
        SystemConfig -->|"setGasPayingToken()"| OP
    end

    subgraph Layer Two
        subgraph L1Block
          TA2[Token Address]
        end
    end
    OP -->|"setGasPayingToken()"| L1Block

Contract Modifications

IGasToken Interface

This interface encapsulates the shared interface.

interface IGasToken {
    /// @notice Getter for the ERC20 token address that is used to pay for gas and its decimals.
    function gasPayingToken() external view returns (address, uint8);
    /// @notice Returns the gas token name.
    function gasPayingTokenName() external view returns (string memory);
    /// @notice Returns the gas token symbol.
    function gasPayingTokenSymbol() external view returns (string memory);
    /// @notice Returns true if the network uses a custom gas token.
    function isCustomGasToken() external view returns (bool);
}

If a custom gas token is not used, then gasPayingToken() should return (ETHER_TOKEN_ADDRESS, 18), gasPayingTokenName should return Ether and gasPayingTokenSymbol should return ETH.

This interface applies to the following contracts:

  • L1Block
  • SystemConfig

Gas Token Aware

The following contracts are aware internally if the chain is using a custom gas token but do not expose anything as part of their ABI that indicates awareness.

  • L1StandardBridge
  • L2StandardBridge
  • L1CrossDomainMessenger
  • L2CrossDomainMessenger
  • OptimismPortal

OptimismPortal

The OptimismPortal is updated with a new interface specifically for depositing custom tokens.

depositERC20Transaction

The depositERC20Transaction function is useful for sending custom gas tokens to L2. It is broken out into its own interface to maintain backwards compatibility with chains that use ether, to help simplify the implementation and make it explicit for callers that are trying to deposit an ERC20 native asset.

function depositERC20Transaction(
    address _to,
    uint256 _mint,
    uint256 _value,
    uint64 _gasLimit,
    bool _isCreation,
    bytes memory _data
) public;

This function MUST revert when ether is the L2's native asset. It MUST not be payable, meaning that it will revert when ether is sent with a CALL to it. It uses a transferFrom flow, so users MUST first approve() the OptimismPortal before they can deposit tokens.

Function Arguments

The following table describes the arguments to depositERC20Transaction

NameTypeDescription
_toaddressThe target of the deposit transaction
_mintuint256The amount of token to deposit
_valueuint256The value of the deposit transaction, used to transfer native asset that is already on L2 from L1
_gasLimituint64The gas limit of the deposit transaction
_isCreationboolSignifies the _data should be used with CREATE
_databytesThe calldata of the deposit transaction

depositTransaction

This function is the hot code path for all usage of the L1StandardBridge and L1CrossDomainMessenger, so it MUST be as backwards compatible as possible. It MUST revert for chains using custom gas token when ether is sent with the CALL. This prevents ether from being stuck in the OptimismPortal, since it cannot be used to mint native asset on L2.

setGasPayingToken

This function MUST only be callable by the SystemConfig. When called, it creates a special deposit transaction from the DEPOSITOR_ACCOUNT that calls the L1Block.setGasPayingToken function. The ERC20 name and symbol are passed as bytes32 to prevent the usage of dynamically sized string arguments.

function setGasPayingToken(address _token, uint8 _decimals, bytes32 _name, bytes32 _symbol) external;

StandardBridge

The StandardBridge contracts on both L1 and L2 MUST be aware of the custom gas token. The ether specific ABI on the StandardBridge is disabled when custom gas token is enabled.

The following methods MUST revert when custom gas token is being used:

  • bridgeETH(uint32,bytes)
  • bridgeETHTo(address,uint32,bytes)
  • receive()
  • finalizeBridgeETH(address, address, uint256, bytes)

The following legacy methods in L1StandardBridge MUST revert when custom gas token is being used:

  • depositETH(uint32,bytes)
  • depositETHTo(address,uint32,bytes)
  • finalizeETHWithdrawal(address,address,uint256,bytes)

The following legacy methods in L2StandardBridge MUST always revert when custom gas token is being used:

  • withdraw(address,uint256,uint32,bytes)
  • withdrawTo(address,address,uint256,uint32,bytes)
  • finalizeDeposit(address,address,address,address,uint256,bytes)

These methods are deprecated and subject to be removed in the future.

CrossDomainMessenger

The CrossDomainMessenger contracts on both L1 and L2 MUST NOT be able to faciliate the transfer of native asset on custom gas token chains due to their tight coupling with ether and the OptimismPortal and L2ToL1MessagePasser contracts.

It is possible to support this in the future with a redesign of the CrossDomainMessenger contract. It would need to have conditional logic based on being a custom gas token chain and faciliate transfer of the ERC20 token to the end user on the other side. It adds a layer of extra state modifying calls so it may not be worth adding.

The following methods MUST revert when CALLVALUE is non zero:

  • sendMessage(address,bytes,uint32)

It should be impossible to call relayMessage when CALLVALUE is non zero, as it is enforced by sendMessage.

The CrossDomainMessenger also has the API for getting the custom gas token, namely gasPayingToken(), which outputs a tuple of the address and decimals of the custom gas token.

  • The L1CrossDomainMessenger fetches this tuple from the SystemConfig contract.
  • The L2CrossDomainMessenger fetches this tuple from the L1Block contract.

SystemConfig

The SystemConfig is the source of truth for the address of the custom gas token. It does on chain validation, stores information about the token and well as passes the information to L2.

initialize

The SystemConfig is modified to allow the address of the custom gas paying token to be set during the call to initialize. Using a custom gas token is indicated by passing an address other than ETHER_TOKEN_ADDRESS or address(0). If address(0) is used for initialization, it MUST be mapped into ETHER_TOKEN_ADDRESS before being forwarded to the rest of the system. When a custom gas token is set, the number of decimals on the token MUST be exactly 18, the name of the token MUST be less than or equal to 32 bytes and the symbol MUST be less than or equal to 32 bytes. If the token passes all of these checks, OptimismPortal.setGasPayingToken is called. The implementation of initialize MUST not allow the chain operator to change the address of the custom gas token if it is already set.

L1Block

The L1Block contract is upgraded with a permissioned function setGasPayingToken that is used to set information about the gas paying token. The DEPOSITOR_ACCOUNT MUST be the only account that can call the setter function. This setter is differentiated from the setL1BlockValues functions because the gas paying token is not meant to be dynamic config whereas the arguments to setL1BlockValues are generally dynamic in nature.

Any L2 contract that wants to learn the address of the gas paying token can call the getter on the L1Block contract.

function setGasPayingToken(address _token, uint8 _decimals, byte32 _name, bytes32 _symbol) external;

WETH9

The WETH9 predeploy is updated so that it calls out to the L1Block contract to retreive the name and symbol. This allows for front ends to more easily trust the token contract. It should prepend Wrapped to the name and W to the symbol.

User Flow

The user flow for custom gas token chains is slightly different than for chains that use ether to pay for gas. The following tables highlight the methods that can be used for depositing and withdrawing the native asset. Not every interface is included.

The StandardBridge and CrossDomainMessenger are symmetric in their APIs between L1 and L2 meaning that "sending to the other domain" indicates it can be used for both deposits and withdrawals.

When ETH is the Native Asset

ScenarioMethodPrerequisites
Native Asset Send to Other DomainL1StandardBridge.bridgeETH(uint32,bytes) payableNone
Native Asset and/or Message Send to Other DomainL1CrossDomainMessenger.sendMessage(address,bytes,uint32) payableNone
Native Asset DepositOptimismPortal.depositTransaction(address,uint256,uint64,bool,bytes) payableNone
ERC20 Send to Other DomainL1StandardBridge.bridgeERC20(address,address,uint256,uint32,bytes)Approve L1StandardBridge for ERC20
Native Asset WithdrawalL2ToL1MessagePasser.initiateWithdrawal(address,uint256,bytes) payableNone

There are multiple APIs for users to deposit or withdraw ether. Depending on the usecase, different APIs should be preferred. For a simple send of just ether with no calldata, the OptimismPortal or L2ToL1MessagePasser should be used directly. If sending with calldata and replayability on failed calls is desired, the CrossDomainMessenger should be used. Using the StandardBridge is the most expensive and has no real benefit for end users.

When an ERC20 Token is the Native Asset

ScenarioMethodPrerequisites
Native Asset DepositOptimismPortal.depositERC20Transaction(address,uint256,uint256,uint64,bool,bytes)Approve OptimismPortal for ERC20
ERC20 Send to Other DomainL1StandardBridge.bridgeERC20(address,address,uint256,uint32,bytes)Approve L1StandardBridge for ERC20
Native Asset WithdrawalL2ToL1MessagePasser.initiateWithdrawal(address,uint256,bytes) payableNone

Users should deposit native asset by calling depositERC20Transaction on the OptimismPortal contract. Users must first approve the address of the OptimismPortal so that the OptimismPortal can use transferFrom to take ownership of the ERC20 asset.

Users should withdraw value by calling the L2ToL1MessagePasser directly.

The following diagram shows the control flow for when a user attempts to send ether through the StandardBridge, either on L1 or L2.

flowchart TD
    A1(User) -->|Attempts to deposit/withdraw ether| A2(StandardBridge or CrossDomainMessenger)
    A2 -->|Is chain using custom gas token?| A3{SystemConfig or L1Block}
    A3 --> |Yes| A2
    A2 --> |Revert| A1

Differences

The main difference is that the StandardBridge and CrossDomainMessenger cannot be used to send the native asset to the other domain when an ERC20 token is the native asset. The StandardBridge can still be used for bridging arbitrary ERC20 tokens and the CrossDomainMessenger can still be used for arbitrary message passing.

Upgrade

The custom gas token upgrade is not yet defined to be part of a particular network upgrade, but it will be scheduled as part of a future hardfork. On the network upgrade block, a set of deposit transaction based upgrade transactions are deterministically generated by the derivation pipeline in the following order:

  • L1 Attributes Transaction calling setL1BlockValuesEcotone
  • User deposits from L1
  • Network Upgrade Transactions
    • L1Block deployment
    • L2CrossDomainMessenger deployment
    • L2StandardBridge deployment
    • Update L1Block Proxy ERC-1967 Implementation Slot
    • Update L2CrossDomainMessenger Proxy ERC-1967 Implementation Slot
    • Update L2StandardBridge Proxy ERC-1967 Implementation Slot

The deployment transactions MUST have a from value that has no code and has no known private key. This is to guarantee it cannot be frontran and have its nonce modified. If this was possible, then an attacker would be able to modify the address that the implementation is deployed to because it is based on CREATE and not CREATE2. This would then cause the proxy implementation set transactions to set an incorrect implementation address, resulting in a bricked contract. The calldata is not generated dynamically to enable deterministic upgrade transactions across all networks.

The proxy upgrade transactions are from address(0) because the Proxy implementation considers address(0) to be an admin. Going straight to the Proxy guarantees that the upgrade will work because there is no guarantee that the Proxy is owned by the ProxyAdmin and going through the ProxyAdmin would require stealing the identity of its owner, which may be different on every chain. That would require adding L2 RPC access to the derivation pipeline and make the upgrade transactions non deterministic.

L1Block Deployment

  • from: 0x4210000000000000000000000000000000000002
  • to: null
  • mint: 0
  • value: 0
  • gasLimit: TODO
  • data: TODO
  • sourceHash: TODO

L2CrossDomainMessenger Deployment

  • from: 0x4210000000000000000000000000000000000003
  • to: null
  • mint: 0
  • value: 0
  • gasLimit: 375,000
  • data: TODO
  • sourceHash: TODO

L2StandardBridge Deployment

  • from: 0x4210000000000000000000000000000000000004
  • to: null
  • mint: 0
  • value: 0
  • gasLimit: 375,000
  • data: TODO
  • sourceHash: TODO

L1Block Proxy Update

  • from: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000
  • to: 0x4200000000000000000000000000000000000015
  • mint: 0
  • value: 0
  • gasLimit: 50,000
  • data: TODO
  • sourceHash: TODO

L2CrossDomainMessenger Proxy Update

  • from: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000
  • to: 0x4200000000000000000000000000000000000007
  • mint: 0
  • value: 0
  • gasLimit: 50,000
  • data: TODO
  • sourceHash: TODO

L2StandardBridge Proxy Update

  • from: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000
  • to: 0x4200000000000000000000000000000000000010
  • mint: 0
  • value: 0
  • gasLimit: 50,000
  • data: TODO
  • sourceHash: TODO

Selection of ETHER_TOKEN_ADDRESS

It was decided to use address(0xEeeeeEeeeEeEeeEeEeEeeEEEeeeeEeeeeeeeEEeE) to represent ether to push ecosystem standardization efforts around using this address to represent ether in DeFi protocols or APIs.

Standard Config

There is currently no strong definition of what it means to be part of the standard config when using the OP Stack with custom gas token enabled. This will be defined in the future.

Fees

The OP Stack natively charges fees in terms of ether due to the fee formula taking into account the basefee and blobbasefee. When a custom gas token is used, fees are paid in the custom gas token but the conversion rate to ether is not taken into account as part of the protocol. It is assumed that the fees will be configured by the chain operator such that the revenue earned in custom gas token can be swapped into ether to pay for posting the data to L1.

Security Considerations

OptimismPortal Token Allowance

The OptimismPortal makes calls on behalf of users. It is therefore unsafe to be able to call the address of the custom gas token itself from the OptimismPortal because it would be a simple way to approve an attacker's balance and steal the entire ERC20 token balance of the OptimismPortal.

Interoperability Support

Interop is supported between chains even if they use different custom gas tokens. The token address and the number of decimals are legible on chain. In the future we may add the ability to poke a chain such that it emits an event that includes the custom gas token address and its number of decimals to easily be able to introspect on the native asset of another chain.

Wrapped Ether

The WETH9 predeploy at 0x4200000000000000000000000000000000000006 represents wrapped native asset and not wrapped ether. Portable and fungible ether across different domains is left for a future project.