Table of Contents


Deposited transactions, also known as deposits are transactions which are initiated on L1, and executed on L2. This document outlines a new transaction type for deposits. It also describes how deposits are initiated on L1, along with the authorization and validation conditions on L2.

Vocabulary note: deposited transaction refers specifically to an L2 transaction, while deposit can refer to the transaction at various stages (for instance when it is deposited on L1).

The Deposited Transaction Type

Deposited transactions have the following notable distinctions from existing transaction types:

  1. They are derived from Layer 1 blocks, and must be included as part of the protocol.
  2. They do not include signature validation (see User-Deposited Transactions for the rationale).
  3. They buy their L2 gas on L1 and, as such, the L2 gas is not refundable.

We define a new EIP-2718 compatible transaction type with the prefix 0x7E to represent a deposit transaction.

A deposit has the following fields (rlp encoded in the order they appear here):

  • bytes32 sourceHash: the source-hash, uniquely identifies the origin of the deposit.
  • address from: The address of the sender account.
  • address to: The address of the recipient account, or the null (zero-length) address if the deposited transaction is a contract creation.
  • uint256 mint: The ETH value to mint on L2.
  • uint256 value: The ETH value to send to the recipient account.
  • uint64 gas: The gas limit for the L2 transaction.
  • bool isSystemTx: If true, the transaction does not interact with the L2 block gas pool.
    • Note: boolean is disabled (enforced to be false) starting from the Regolith upgrade.
  • bytes data: The calldata.

In contrast to EIP-155 transactions, this transaction type:

  • Does not include a nonce, since it is identified by the sourceHash. API responses still include a nonce attribute:
    • Before Regolith: the nonce is always 0
    • With Regolith: the nonce is set to the depositNonce attribute of the corresponding transaction receipt.
  • Does not include signature information, and makes the from address explicit. API responses contain zeroed signature v, r, s values for backwards compatibility.
  • Includes new sourceHash, from, mint, and isSystemTx attributes. API responses contain these as additional fields.

We select 0x7E because transaction type identifiers are currently allowed to go up to 0x7F. Picking a high identifier minimizes the risk that the identifier will be used by another transaction type on the L1 chain in the future. We don't pick 0x7F itself in case it becomes used for a variable-length encoding scheme.

Source hash computation

The sourceHash of a deposit transaction is computed based on the origin:

  • User-deposited: keccak256(bytes32(uint256(0)), keccak256(l1BlockHash, bytes32(uint256(l1LogIndex)))). Where the l1BlockHash, and l1LogIndex all refer to the inclusion of the deposit log event on L1. l1LogIndex is the index of the deposit event log in the combined list of log events of the block.
  • L1 attributes deposited: keccak256(bytes32(uint256(1)), keccak256(l1BlockHash, bytes32(uint256(seqNumber)))). Where l1BlockHash refers to the L1 block hash of which the info attributes are deposited. And seqNumber = l2BlockNum - l2EpochStartBlockNum, where l2BlockNum is the L2 block number of the inclusion of the deposit tx in L2, and l2EpochStartBlockNum is the L2 block number of the first L2 block in the epoch.
  • Upgrade-deposited: keccak256(bytes32(uint256(2)), keccak256(intent)). Where intent is a UTF-8 byte string, identifying the upgrade intent.

Without a sourceHash in a deposit, two different deposited transactions could have the same exact hash.

The outer keccak256 hashes the actual uniquely identifying information with a domain, to avoid collisions between different types of sources.

We do not use the sender's nonce to ensure uniqueness because this would require an extra L2 EVM state read from the execution engine during block-derivation.

Kinds of Deposited Transactions

Although we define only one new transaction type, we can distinguish between two kinds of deposited transactions, based on their positioning in the L2 block:

  1. The first transaction MUST be a L1 attributes deposited transaction, followed by
  2. an array of zero-or-more user-deposited transactions submitted to the deposit feed contract on L1 (called OptimismPortal). User-deposited transactions are only present in the first block of a L2 epoch.

We only define a single new transaction type in order to minimize modifications to L1 client software, and complexity in general.

Validation and Authorization of Deposited Transactions

As noted above, the deposited transaction type does not include a signature for validation. Rather, authorization is handled by the L2 chain derivation process, which when correctly applied will only derive transactions with a from address attested to by the logs of the L1 deposit contract.


In order to execute a deposited transaction:

First, the balance of the from account MUST be increased by the amount of mint. This is unconditional, and does not revert on deposit failure.

Then, the execution environment for a deposited transaction is initialized based on the transaction's attributes, in exactly the same manner as it would be for an EIP-155 transaction.

The deposit transaction is processed exactly like a type-3 (EIP-1559) transaction, with the exception of:

  • No fee fields are verified: the deposit does not have any, as it pays for gas on L1.
  • No nonce field is verified: the deposit does not have any, it's uniquely identified by its sourceHash.
  • No access-list is processed: the deposit has no access-list, and it is thus processed as if the access-list is empty.
  • No check if from is an Externally Owner Account (EOA): the deposit is ensured not to be an EOA through L1 address masking, this may change in future L1 contract-deployments to e.g. enable an account-abstraction like mechanism.
  • Before the Regolith upgrade:
    • The execution output states a non-standard gas usage:
      • If isSystemTx is false: execution output states it uses gasLimit gas.
      • If isSystemTx is true: execution output states it uses 0 gas.
  • No gas is refunded as ETH. (either by not refunding or utilizing the fact the gas-price of the deposit is 0)
  • No transaction priority fee is charged. No payment is made to the block fee-recipient.
  • No L1-cost fee is charged, as deposits are derived from L1 and do not have to be submitted as data back to it.
  • No base fee is charged. The total base fee accounting does not change.

Note that this includes contract-deployment behavior like with regular transactions, and gas metering is the same (with the exception of fee related changes above), including metering of intrinsic gas.

Any non-EVM state-transition error emitted by the EVM execution is processed in a special way:

  • It is transformed into an EVM-error: i.e. the deposit will always be included, but its receipt will indicate a failure if it runs into a non-EVM state-transition error, e.g. failure to transfer the specified value amount of ETH due to insufficient account-balance.
  • The world state is rolled back to the start of the EVM processing, after the minting part of the deposit.
  • The nonce of from in the world state is incremented by 1, making the error equivalent to a native EVM failure. Note that a previous nonce increment may have happened during EVM processing, but this would be rolled back first.

Finally, after the above processing, the execution post-processing runs the same: i.e. the gas pool and receipt are processed identical to a regular transaction. Starting with the Regolith upgrade however, the receipt of deposit transactions is extended with an additional depositNonce value, storing the nonce value of the from sender as registered before the EVM processing.

Note that the gas used as stated by the execution output is subtracted from the gas pool, but this execution output value has special edge cases before the Regolith upgrade.

Note for application developers: because CALLER and ORIGIN are set to from, the semantics of using the tx.origin == msg.sender check will not work to determine whether or not a caller is an EOA during a deposit transaction. Instead, the check could only be useful for identifying the first call in the L2 deposit transaction. However this check does still satisfy the common case in which developers are using this check to ensure that the CALLER is unable to execute code before and after the call.

Nonce Handling

Despite the lack of signature validation, we still increment the nonce of the from account when a deposit transaction is executed. In the context of a deposit-only roll up, this is not necessary for transaction ordering or replay prevention, however it maintains consistency with the use of nonces during contract creation. It may also simplify integration with downstream tooling (such as wallets and block explorers).

Deposit Receipt

Transaction receipts use standard typing as per EIP-2718. The Deposit transaction receipt type is equal to a regular receipt, but extended with an optional depositNonce field.

The RLP-encoded consensus-enforced fields are:

  • postStateOrStatus (standard): this contains the transaction status, see EIP-658.
  • cumulativeGasUsed (standard): gas used in the block thus far, including this transaction.
    • The actual gas used is derived from the difference in CumulativeGasUsed with the previous transaction.
    • Starting with Regolith, this accounts for the actual gas usage by the deposit, like regular transactions.
  • bloom (standard): bloom filter of the transaction logs.
  • logs (standard): log events emitted by the EVM processing.
  • depositNonce (unique extension): Optional field. The deposit transaction persists the nonce used during execution.
  • depositNonceVersion (unique extension): Optional field. The value must be 1 if the field is present
    • Before Canyon, these depositNonce & depositNonceVersion fields must always be omitted.
    • With Canyon, these depositNonce & depositNonceVersion fields must always be included.

Starting with Regolith, the receipt API responses utilize the receipt changes for more accurate response data:

  • The depositNonce is included in the receipt JSON data in API responses
  • For contract-deployments (when to == null), the depositNonce helps derive the correct contractAddress meta-data, instead of assuming the nonce was zero.
  • The cumulativeGasUsed accounts for the actual gas usage, as metered in the EVM processing.

L1 Attributes Deposited Transaction

An L1 attributes deposited transaction is a deposit transaction sent to the L1 attributes predeployed contract.

This transaction MUST have the following values:

  1. from is 0xdeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddead0001 (the address of the L1 Attributes depositor account)
  2. to is 0x4200000000000000000000000000000000000015 (the address of the L1 attributes predeployed contract).
  3. mint is 0
  4. value is 0
  5. gasLimit is set to 150,000,000 prior to the Regolith upgrade, and 1,000,000 after.
  6. isSystemTx is set to true prior to the Regolith upgrade, and false after.
  7. data is an encoded call to the L1 attributes predeployed contract that depends on the upgrades that are active (see below).

This system-initiated transaction for L1 attributes is not charged any ETH for its allocated gasLimit, as it is considered part of state-transition processing.

L1 Attributes Deposited Transaction Calldata

L1 Attributes - Bedrock, Canyon, Delta

The data field of the L1 attributes deposited transaction is an ABI encoded call to the setL1BlockValues() function with correct values associated with the corresponding L1 block (cf. reference implementation).

Special Accounts on L2

The L1 attributes deposit transaction involves two special purpose accounts:

  1. The L1 attributes depositor account
  2. The L1 attributes predeployed contract

L1 Attributes Depositor Account

The depositor account is an EOA with no known private key. It has the address 0xdeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddeaddead0001. Its value is returned by the CALLER and ORIGIN opcodes during execution of the L1 attributes deposited transaction.

L1 Attributes Predeployed Contract

A predeployed contract on L2 at address 0x4200000000000000000000000000000000000015, which holds certain block variables from the corresponding L1 block in storage, so that they may be accessed during the execution of the subsequent deposited transactions.

The predeploy stores the following values:

  • L1 block attributes:
    • number (uint64)
    • timestamp (uint64)
    • basefee (uint256)
    • hash (bytes32)
  • sequenceNumber (uint64): This equals the L2 block number relative to the start of the epoch, i.e. the L2 block distance to the L2 block height that the L1 attributes last changed, and reset to 0 at the start of a new epoch.
  • System configurables tied to the L1 block, see System configuration specification:
    • batcherHash (bytes32): A versioned commitment to the batch-submitter(s) currently operating.
    • overhead (uint256): The L1 fee overhead to apply to L1 cost computation of transactions in this L2 block.
    • scalar (uint256): The L1 fee scalar to apply to L1 cost computation of transactions in this L2 block.

The contract implements an authorization scheme, such that it only accepts state-changing calls from the depositor account.

The contract has the following solidity interface, and can be interacted with according to the contract ABI specification.

L1 Attributes Predeployed Contract: Reference Implementation

A reference implementation of the L1 Attributes predeploy contract can be found in L1Block.sol.

User-Deposited Transactions

User-deposited transactions are deposited transactions generated by the L2 Chain Derivation process. The content of each user-deposited transaction are determined by the corresponding TransactionDeposited event emitted by the deposit contract on L1.

  1. from is unchanged from the emitted value (though it may have been transformed to an alias in OptimismPortal, the deposit feed contract).
  2. to is any 20-byte address (including the zero address)
    • In case of a contract creation (cf. isCreation), this address is set to null.
  3. mint is set to the emitted value.
  4. value is set to the emitted value.
  5. gaslimit is unchanged from the emitted value. It must be at least 21000.
  6. isCreation is set to true if the transaction is a contract creation, false otherwise.
  7. data is unchanged from the emitted value. Depending on the value of isCreation it is handled as either calldata or contract initialization code.
  8. isSystemTx is set by the rollup node for certain transactions that have unmetered execution. It is false for user deposited transactions

Deposit Contract

The deposit contract is deployed to L1. Deposited transactions are derived from the values in the TransactionDeposited event(s) emitted by the deposit contract.

The deposit contract is responsible for maintaining the guaranteed gas market, charging deposits for gas to be used on L2, and ensuring that the total amount of guaranteed gas in a single L1 block does not exceed the L2 block gas limit.

The deposit contract handles two special cases:

  1. A contract creation deposit, which is indicated by setting the isCreation flag to true. In the event that the to address is non-zero, the contract will revert.
  2. A call from a contract account, in which case the from value is transformed to its L2 alias.

Address Aliasing

If the caller is a contract, the address will be transformed by adding 0x1111000000000000000000000000000000001111 to it. The math is unchecked and done on a Solidity uint160 so the value will overflow. This prevents attacks in which a contract on L1 has the same address as a contract on L2 but doesn't have the same code. We can safely ignore this for EOAs because they're guaranteed to have the same "code" (i.e. no code at all). This also makes it possible for users to interact with contracts on L2 even when the Sequencer is down.

Deposit Contract Implementation: Optimism Portal

A reference implementation of the deposit contract can be found in OptimismPortal.sol.